1 - Ayatullah Burujirdi who was not happy with the aims and policies of the Shah's regime, and who disagreed with the Shah's American-inspired reforms, refused to change his stance in spite of the fact that government officials and special representatives of the Shah had visited him on several occasions. In answer to one of these representatives he said that there were more important reforms to be made. When Ayatullah Burujirdi passed away the regime believed that one of the obstacles in the path of the proposed American reforms had now been removed. See the historical quarterly: Yad, Third Year, winter 1987, p.
2 - the appointments of Sharif Imami as Prime Minister (October 1960 to April) 1961 (Shahrivar 1339 - Ordibihisht 1340 AHS)) was a result of the open opposition of that time between Russia and the West on one side and Britain and America on the other, for the security of their respective interests in Iran. As a result of pressure from London and Moscow and through the political activities of agents connected to Britain in the Shah's court, Sharif Imami took control of affairs. During his premiership British infiltration increased considerably, Russia was granted certain concessions and negotiations between Tehran and Moscow got underway. America's reaction to this state of affairs and the pressure it thereby exerted upon Iran forced the Shah to dismiss Sharif Imami and replace him with Au Amini. During Amini's premiership (April 1961 to June 1962 (Ordibihisht 1340 - Tir 1341 AHS)) the Iranian Parliament was closed; a loan was received from America; for the sake of appearances a few military officials and the chief advisor to Sharif Imami were arrested; relations between Russia and Iran became strained; and American infiltration increased in the country. Refer to Siyohaft Sal, pp.41-44.
3 - After President Kennedy's message delivered on May 25, 1961 (Khurdad 4, 1340 AHS) to the American Congress, underlining the statement: " ... no amount of weapons or troops can offer security to a regime that cannot or will not reform economically and socially, Dr. 'Au Amini, an American pawn entered the scene with his phony social reform campaign and his promise to fight corruption. He announced total national bankruptcy thus opening the way for huge foreign loans with high interest rates and creating possibilities for American investment in many areas. See Iran VA Tarikh, pp.124 and 176.
4 - Later the followers of Socialism went even further, whereby on June 8th. 196: (Khurdad 18, 1342 AHS), only three days after the bloody event of Khurdad 15 when many were martyred, the newspaper Ezvestia of the official Communist Party in Russia, wrote; "Yesterday in the capital of Iran ~Tehran). As well as in Mashhad, Qum and othes major religious centers of that country, groups of revolutionaries were encouraged to create riots by the religious leaders. They were opposing the government's land reforms and took advantage of the fact that this coincided with the religious ceremonies performed annually to commemorate the martyrdom of Imam Husayn. Shooting proved to he an unsuccessful plea to stop. A few young fanatics looted shops and several cars were overturned. The implementation of anti-feudalist land reforms and the decision to give women the right to vote was opposed by land owners and religious leaders from the very start; and now these reactionaries are trying to move from verbal to active opposition. ' (Published in hula 'a and Kayhan, June 10, 1963 / Khurdad 20, 1342 AHS)
5 - Kayhan, October 8, 1962 (Mehr 16, 1341 AHS).
6 - Ayatullah Shaykh Morteza Ha'iri was the eldest son of Ayatullah al-Azami Hajj Shaykh 'Abdulkarjm Ha'iri.
7 - these telegrams were sent individually from Imam Khomeini and the honourable Ayatullahs Gulpaygani, Najafi-Mar'ashi, and Shari~ atmadari, and jointly from elegrams to the Prime Minister and the government. Subsequently, further telegrams were sent to Mr. 'Alam on November 20, 1962 (Mehr 28, 1 341 AHS) and Imam and the other religious authorities awaited a reply from the government. While 'Alam's government was in disarray due to the reaction of the public and the religious leaders both inside and outside of the country, *8** on the morning of November 11 (Aban 20) of the same year, a group of businessmen and shopkeepers of Qum went unannounced to see Imam Khomeini during his class in the A'zam Mosque. After having listened to one of these visitors speaks, Imam delivered an important speech, which has since been compiled from witnesses' reports and historians' accounts. Unfortunately, only a small part of his speech has been reconstructed. The meetings held by Imam Khomeini and the other maraji' in the home of the late Ayatullah Ha'iri, and the subsequent issuance of declarations and telegrams to the Shah, were measures which combined to bring about important repercussions which eventually compelled the regime to stand down from its initial stance. Imam recommended that the telegrams be reproduced and distributed to the people, and his own telegram to the Shah was widely circulated. The honourable Zanjani, Damad, Amuli, and Ha'iri. The tone of Imam's telegram was respectful in comparison to the telegrams sent by the other maraji' and 'ulama (in which abusive names were addressed to the Shah). In one part of his telegram lmam wrote: It is printed in the newspapers that in the elections for the Provincial and District Councils, the government has not made Islamic qualifications a prerequisite for candidates and voters. This is of great concern to the religious authorities. The well being of this country lies in the preservation of the religious laws of Islam and the continued tranquility of hearts. Therefore, it is requested that you order for those issues which contravene the official religion of this country to be excluded from government and party policies." It is worth noting that the Shah answered Imam's telegram some days after answering those sent by the other maraji'. See Nihzat-i Ruhaniyun-i bran, Vol.3, p.31.
8 - During the State and Provincial Councils dispute, in addition to the telegrams mentioned in the previous footnote, Ayatullah Khui, Ayatullah Hakim and the honourable Ayatullahs Morteza Ha' in, Amuli, Damad, and Zanjani also sent telegrams to Ayatullah Bihbihani, who reflected their protests in his telegram to the Shah. Likewise, in support of the religious leaders' uprising, signed statements made by the 'ulama and clergymen of Tehran, the community of preachers in Tehran, the clergy of Shemiran, Tehran guilds and Tehran bazaar merchants were also published. Ibid. pp.49-52.
9 - Messrs Ayatullah Gulpaygani, Najafi. Shani'atmadani, and lmam Khomeini were informed of this matter being passed on to Alam via a telegram from the Shah numbered 305K 90T and dated October 16, 1962 (Mehr 28, 1341 AHS). Nihzat-i Ruhaniyun-i Iran, Vol.3, p.36.
10 - The telegrams dated October 20, 1962 (Mehr 28, 1341 AHS) were from Imam Khomeini, Ayatullah Najafi Mar'ashi and Mr. Shari' atmadani, and the telegram dated October 21, 1962 (Mehr 29, 1341 AHS) was from Ayatullah Gulpaygani.
11 - one part of the second telegram to be sent by Imam to the Shah reads: Even though I reprimanded Mr. Assadullah Alam because of this innovation he wishes to introduce to Islam, and although I made him aware of the evil of this deed, he has neither obeyed God's laws nor the laws of the Constitution, nor has he heeded the advice of the 'ukima . . . the Muslim people expect Mr. 'Alam to abide by the Constitution and to apologize for his impudence to the Holy Qur'an. If he fails to do this I shall have to resort to sending another open letter to His Imperial Majesty and to bringing other matters up".
12 - This phrase is contained in the irrevocable law and is one of the major rules of religious jurisprudence, according to which in legal and juristical issues the people are expected to comply with the precepts of their religion and the laws, which they themselves have chosen. Imam' s intention here is to draw attention to the contradictory nature of the Provincial and District Councils Bill with the constitutional law, which the government is bound to. By referring to the previously mentioned rule, he emphasised that his words did not constitute recognition of the legitimacy of the constitutional or any other law, for that came from the law's compliance with the laws of the religion. For further information concerning irrevocable laws see Wasa'il al-Shi'a Vol. 15, (Kitab al-Talaq), (Abwab Muqaddamata Wa Shara'ita) Chapter 30. Thesecond amendment to the constitutional law declared that: ' The Holy National Consultative Assembly, which has been established through the assistance and favour of the twelfth Imam (May God hasten his renewed manifestation), should not at any time allow any of its articles of laws to contradict the rules of Islam or the laws of Hazrat Khairol- Anam (Hazrat Muhammad, upon whom be peace). It is obvious that the responsibility for determining which laws are at variance with the laws of Islam is and has been with the most learned 'u/ama, (May God prolong their beneficial existence). Therefore, it is officially decided that in any period of time a group of not less than five Islamic jurisprudents (mujtahids) and fuqaha who are aware of current events will be selected to do this. Thus, the most learned 'u/ama and maraji '-i taqlid will introduce twenty names from amongst the 'ulama, who are qualified, to the National Consultative Assembly. Five or more will be chosen by unanimous vote or by drawing lots, and will be recognised as members so that all the articles proposed to the Majlis are carefully analysed and negotiated, and every article which is at variance with the holy laws of Islam is rescinded. The vote of this group of 'u/ama must be obeyed and followed, and this article is irrevocable until imam Mahdi's appearance."
13 - The response of the Iraqi 'ulama towards the attack on the sanctity of the Qur'an, Islam and Islamic countries, has made history in recent decades. Most of these 'u/ama are now present in the theological centre in Najaf. Details of the role played by the theological centre of Najaf and the struggles engaged in by the theologians in this Shi'i centre during Iraq's occupation by British colonialists, are to be found in the footnotes of other speeches within this anthology, as are details of the 'ulama's opposition to the anti-Islamic measures taken by the Qajar and Pahlavi kings.
14 - Nihztl-i Ruhaniyun-i Iran, Vol. 3, p. 87.
15 - Informing the people of the details was disapproved of at first by the 'u/ama because it was felt that this might anger the government and provoke an unfavorable response, but Imam Khomeini (pbuh) persisted, and his suggestion to print and distribute the telegrams concerning the bill was finally accepted.
16 - Ibid.
17 - at that time tape recorders were not widely used and because the meeting was Unexpected, it was not recorded.
18 - Following the measures taken by Imam Khomeini and the maraji' of Qum, letters and telegrams were sent reflecting the people's protest to the Prime Minister at the request of several organisations and religious groups including Kanun-i Nashr, Haqayiq-i Islami, Anjuman-i Bani Fatima etc. Ayatullah Milani, Hujjat al-Islam Hassan Qummi, Ayatullah Khu'i of Najaf, and Ayatullah Araki of Qum also sent telegrams to the Shah. The flood of declarations and telegrams continued from the 'u/ama, religious speakers, religious groups, and businessmen throughout the country. All of the names of the signatories are listed in the book Nihzat-i Ruhaniyun-i Iran, Vol. 3, pp. 123-147. Including the contents of the letters and declarations of the 'u/ama from Bihbihan, Burujird, Mazandaran, Tabriz, Azerbayjan, Dezful, Khurramabad, Zanjan, Fars Province, Qazvin, Kashan, Lorestan, Hamadan, Rasht, Yazd, and Tehran. The declaration made by Nihzat-i Azadi-yi Iran is also printed therein.
19 - Barrasi va-Tahlili az- Nihzat-i Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1. p. 177.
20 - Nihzat-i Ruhaniyun-i Iran, Vol.3, p.1 17.
21 - the honourable Ayatullah Najafi Marashi had prepared a congratulatory telegram, the printing of which was deterred by Imam's message.
22 - Barrasi VA Tahkui az-Nihzat-i Imam Khomeini, Vol.1, p.191.
23 - Ihid, Vol.1, p.191.
24 - Kayhan newspaper November 30, 1962 (Azar 7, 1341 AHS).
25 - Barrasi VA Tahlili AZ Nihzat-i Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, p.190. It should be noted At Imam Khomeini gave a detailed speech at this gathering but unfortunately despite much ~J1brt, this was never recovered in its entirety.
26 - Ayatullah Gulpaygani, Ayatullah Najafi-Mar'ashi and Mr. Shari'atmadari in separate messages thanked the people for their support. Nihzat-i Ruhaniyun-i Iran, Vol. 3, p. 159.
27 - by the 'ulama of Tehran Imam Khomeini means Ayatullah Khansari. During the encounters, which occurred between the police and the people in areas around the mosque, it was rumoured that Ayatullah Khansari had been hit by one of the police officers. This news greatly distressed and upset Imam.
28 - In Asadullah 'Alam s telegram sent on November 13, 1962 (Aban 22. 1341 AHS) to the maraji', it is stated: "Concerning the silence on the matter of the non- participation of women in the Provincial and District Councils, which has been the cause of complaints I recall that the aforesaid laws are similar to the election laws for the town Councils which were passed seven years ago and to which no objections were raised Nihzat-i Ruhaniyun i Iran Vol 3 p 106
29 - In reply to a telegram of opposition from the maraji of Qum concerninig~ the provincial and District Councils Bill the Shah in a letter sent on October 15 1962 (Mehr ~' From the Sa d Abad palace to Qum, expressed his disregard for the role of ~ Maraji-i taqlid and referring to them as Hujjat al-Islams wrote: "We would like to remind you that we strive more than anyone to preserve religious practices... We would also like to draw your attention to the circumstances of the time and of history and also to conditions in other Islamic countries. We wish you all success in the dissemination of Islamic decrees and in guiding the views of the populace. Nihzat-i Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1, p. 151.
30 - Mu'awiya ibn Abu Sufyan (607 - 80 AD) first caliph of the Umayyad dynasty accepted Islam on the day Mecca was conquered (630 AD). He was the commander of the army during the caliphate of Abu Bakr and at the time of Umar he was first the governor of Damascus and then governor of Damascus, and at the time of Uthman he was responsible for the 'entire principality of Syria. After the death of Uthman, Hazrat 'Ali (pbuh) was P~C1aimed caliph and issued orders for Mu'awiya s dismissal. However, Mu'awiya did Dot' comply with Imam 'Ali is orders and accused him of involvement in the murder of Uthman and demanded vengeance for his death. During the battle of Siffin, which was fought between Mu'awiya s troops and those of Hazrat Ali, 'Amr ibn-al-' As, Ali'awiyas They Commander, on seeing the battle going in 'Ali's favour, resorted to a ruse and ordered his soldiers to fasten copies of the Quran to their lances and hold them up in the air This move brought about a dispute amongst 'Ali's followers, the battle was ended and Mu awiya remained in his principality. After Imam Alis martyrdom, his son Imam ~IaD ~pbuh) was forced into a conditional peace with Mu'awiya because of the actions ~ traitorous troops and commanders and eventually relinquished the caliphate to him in 661 AD From this date on, Mu'awiya called himself the official Muslim caliph. See Philip oK. Hini's Histoiy of the Arabs and S.H.M. Jafri's The Origins and Ear/v Of Shi'a Islam.
31 - Mu'awiya opposed the expulsion order. Moghayyar ibn Sho'beh and Ibn 'Abbas (Imam 'Ali's cousin) did not agree with Mu'awiyas expulsion and recommended that Imam 'Au be lenient and condescending for two years until the people of Syria swore allegiance to him, and then take action against him. But Imam 'Ali would not accept that Mu'awiya rule over the lives and wealth of the Muslim people for even a short period of time.
32 - Ayatullah Mirza Muhammad Hassan Shirazi (18 12-1894 AD), better known as Mirza Shirazi the Great I, was the most learned, narja' of his era and was one of the highest ranking 'u/ama. He issued the famous order for the tobacco boycott. Early in his life he left Shiraz and went to study with the 'u/ama in Isfahan; from there he went to Iraq (to the atabat, i.e. the major centres of Shi'i learning in Iraq: the holy shrines in Karbala, Najaf and Kazimayn). There he studied under Shaykh Morteza Ansari, before he himself began to teach. During the period that he was mar/a '-i Taqlid in 1891, the Qajar Shah, Nasir al-Din, signed a contract with an English company granting it a fifty-year monopoly over the distribution and exportation of tobacco, As concern over the concession swept through the country, Ayatullah Shirazi issued a fatwa stating that the use of tobacco in whatever form was forbidden (haram) and was tantamount to declaring war with Imam Zaman (the Twelfth lmam) in order to curtail the spread of British influence in the country . Consequently, Nasir al-Din Shah was faced with no alternative but to annul the concession.
33 - the city of Samarra is of interest to Muslims and is a famous place of Shi'i. PiIgrimage. This city is located in Iraq, 120 km north of Baghdad and lies on the east bank of the Tigris River. Several times the ancient city of Samarra has been destroyed and, rebuilt. It is the burial site of imam 'Ali al-Naqi (pbuh), the tenth Imam, and Imam Hassan Askari (pbuh) the eleventh imam There is also a famous basement there which is said to the place where the twelfth Imam of the Shi'a, Imam Mahdi (may God hasten his renewed manifestation) went into occultation The ancient name of this city was Surra man q a which means whoever sees it shall be gladdened.
34 - Ayatullah Mirza Muhammad Taqi Shirazi (d 1921 AD), better known as Mirza mojahed II, was one of the great Shi'i marja' and was one of Mirza Shirazi the Greats Dents. He was a leading force (after Ayatullah Sayyid Kazem Tabataba'i) in the resistance by the Shi'i' ulama opposed to the imposition of British rule on Iraq at the end, of the First World War. His requisition read as follows: 'It is the religious duty of the. Iraqi People to demand their rights."
35 - The numerous telegrams sent from the 'u/ama to 'Alam's government requesting the abolition of the Provincial and District Councils Bill and the governments refusal to reply, forced the clergy of Tehran to seek assistance from Almighty God and in order to remind the people of important matters they decided to hold a gathering at the Sayyid Azizullah Mosque on Thursday morning November 29, 1962 (Azar 8, 1341 AHS). This information was disseminated amongst the people by way of leaflets. The great elderly clergymen Ayatulah Bihbthani and Ayatullah Tunakabuni decided to remain in the Sayyid Azizullah Mosque until the Provincial and District Councils Bill was annulled. This news caused public uproar, and the pious people, who could not bear to see their marja' and religious leaders inconvenienced and dissatisfied in this way, decided to join them in the mosque to express their opposition to the government. The Sayyid Azizullah Mosque is one of the major mosques in Tehran and was an Islamic revolutionary base during the time of the resurgence and is located within Tehran's main bazaar.
36 - Praying and weeping.
37 - As the Provincial and District Council disturbances continued and the 'ulama of Tehran issued an invitation to the people to join them in a protest gathering at the Sayyid Azizullah Mosque on November 29. 1962 (Azar 8, 1341 AHS), 'Alam's government felt increasingly threatened. That same night it held a meeting during which the Provincial and District Councils Bill was rescinded and notification was sent to the 'u/ama of Tehran. In addition, in order to prevent the prayer gathering of the next day, the government decided to Send 'Emad Torbatti, the Prime Ministers representative, in the middle of the night to the homes of the respected clergymen Bihbihani, Khansari, Amoli, Tunakabuni, to obtain their signatures at the bottom of a document declaring the cancellation of the aforementioned gathering. At 5 a.m. this document was distributed in the Tehran Bazaar and the surrounding streets. It stated: The Prime Minister has announced that the bill concerning the election for Provincial and District Councils which was ratified by the government will not be implemented. Therefore, thanks to all the Muslims efforts, the gathering on Thursday Rajab 1, (November 29) which was supposed to be held in the Sayyid Azizullah Mosque is no longer necessary."
38 - the telegram containing the news of the abolition of the Provincial and District Councils Bill was sent to Mr. Sayyid Kazem Shari'atmadari and the great Ayatullahs Gulpaygani and Najafi-Marashi in Qum from the Prime Minister's palace. Refraining from sending a telegram to Imam Khomeini was evidence of the regimes anger regarding his stance.
39 - Even though the government had promised to publish news of the bill's annulment in the newspapers, it considered it sufficient merely to send telegrams to the great maraji' and 'ulama. This greatly angered lmam and the other clergymen. Thus, by sending a letter and special messenger to Téhran and other cities, Imam requested that the clergy continue in their opposition until news of the annulment be published in the newspapers This action forced the Prime Minister to announce the abolition of the bill during an interview on December 1, 1962 (Azar 10, 1341 AHS). After this, the newspaper Headlines read: "The government has revoked the bill dated October 6, 1962 (Mehr 14, 1341 AHS)."
40 - After the clergy and the people had waited one month for an answer regarding the government s opinion on Monday October 14 1962 (Mehr 22 134i AHS) the. Prime Minister in a telegram to Mr. Sayyid Kazem Shari'atmadari and the great Ayatullahs Najafi-Marashi and Gulpaygani stated: ". Concerning the government's silence on the issue of the non-participation of women in the Provincial and District Councils, I must remind the worthy gentlemen that the conditions concerning this bill are the same as those which apply to the elections for the town councils' bill which was ratified seven years ago and to which no opposition has ever been raised.' Imam Khomeini in reply to questions put to him by the merchants and businessmen of Qum regarding his views on the Prime Minister's interview dated December 12, 1962 (Azar 21, 1341 AHS) rejected 'Alam's claims concerning the similarity of the bill with the town council bill. His statements in this regard were later published as his declaration in reply to the Prime Minister. See Nihzat-i Ruhaniyun-i Iran, Volume 3, pp. 112-115.
43 - Meaning that we will not accept any law except Islamic law, the laws of the Constitution that follow religious law are accepted by us.
44 - The Shah and 'Alam's government wanted to pass the Provincial and District Council Bill and violate Islam and the Constitution in the name of progress and using the excuse of the prevailing circumstances and their international obligations. The Shah in answer to a telegram sent by the maraji' announced these changes to be trivial and to have arisen from the current situation. In one of his speeches, 'Alam, while condemning any revolt, implicitly described the current activities of the 'ulama as being reactionary measures and added that the wheels of time could not be turned back and the government Would not change its mind concerning the reform programmes.
45 - The high-ranking 'u/ama of the theology centres inside the country, Clergymen, scholars, preachers, merchants, tradesmen and religious groups supported the actions of the maraji' of Qurn for the abolition of the Provincial and District Councils Bill In Successive letters, telegrams and papers which contained thousands of signatures. They regularly expressed to the Shah and the government, and especially the maraji, the Version and apprehension of the local citizens concerning the bill, and requested the abolition of the bill.
46 - Refers to the funeral and burial ceremony of the great Shi'i ~narja' Ayatullah Burujirdi (pbuh) the death of whom millions of Shi' i Muslims throughout the world mourned.
47 - Refers to the defeat of 'Alam's government by the clergy over the Provincial and District Councils Bill. After its annulment, people in many cities put up lights and celebrated the victory of Islam and the clergy. Some of the poets even composed poems to mark the occasion. To see the role of the leadership of Imam Khomeini at that time refer to the poem on page 205 in the book Barrasi VA Tahlili AZ Nihzat-i Imam Khomeini, Vol. 1. Also see Nihzat-i Ruhaniyun-i Iran, Vol. 3, pp. 185-193.
48 - Imam s criticism is aimed at the freedom allowed the press at that time to speak about the clergy and sacred things in an insolent manner.
49 - the government-controlled press wrote: "If the 'u/ama are against the progress and advancement which His Highness proclaims, then they can leave the country.
50 - The Pahlavi regime used propagation and false rumour in its fight against the clergy in the Provincial and District Councils Bill disturbances in order to make the clergy and the maraji' s non-reactionary struggle look despicable and portray the clergy's uprising as being instigated by the feudal landowners and capitalists, and in this way turn the peasants against the clergy. The magazine Khusheh wrote: "One of the great landowners.